**Objective:**

- Verification and interpretation of truth tables for AND, OR, NOT, NAND, NOR Exclusive OR (EX-OR), Exclusive NOR (EX-NOR) Gates.
- Implement Boolean function F=xy+x’y’+y’z.

**Theory:**

- Logic gates are electronic circuits which perform logical functions on one or more inputs to produce one output. There are seven logic gates. When all the input combinations of a logic gate are written in a series and their corresponding outputs written along them, then this input/ output combination is called Truth Table. OR, AND and NOT are basic gates. NAND, NOR are known as universal gates. Various gates and their working is explained here.

**AND GATE:**The AND gate performs a logical multiplication commonly known as AND function. The output is high when both the inputs are high. The output is low level when any one of the inputs is low.**OR GATE**: The OR gate performs a logical addition commonly known as OR function. The output is high when any one of the inputs is high. The output is low level when both the inputs are low.**NOT GATE:**The NOT gate is called an inverter. The output is high when the input is low. The output is low when the input is high**NAND GATE:**The NAND gate is a contraction of AND-NOT. The output is high when both inputs are low and any one of the input is low .The output is low level when both inputs are high.**NOR GATE:**The NOR gate is a contraction of OR-NOT. The output is high when both inputs are low. The output is low when one or both inputs are high.**X-OR GATE:**The output is high when any one of the inputs is high. The output is low when both the inputs are low and both the inputs are high.

**Useful IC Pin Detail:**

** **** **

**Apparatus / Component required:**** **

Sl No | Component | Specification | Quantity | |

1 | AND GATE | IC 7408 | 1 | |

2 | OR GATE | IC 7432 | 1 | |

3 | NOT GATE | IC 7404 | 1 | |

4 | NAND GATE | IC 7400 | 1 | |

5 | NOR GATE | IC 7402 | 1 | |

6 | X-NOR GATE | IC 7486 | 1 | |

7 | IC TRAINER KIT | —— | 1 | |

8 | PATCH CORD | ——- | As per required |

**Procedure:**

- Connect the trainer kit to ac power supply.
- Connect the inputs of any one logic gate to the logic sources and its output to the logic indicator.
- Apply various input combinations and observe output for each one.
- Verify the truth table for each input/ output combination.
- Repeat the process for all other logic gates.
- Switch off the ac power supply.

**Observations:**** **

GATE | SYMBOL | FUNCTION | OBSERVATION | TRUTH TABLE |

AND | ||||

OR | ||||

NOT | ||||

NAND | ||||

NOR | ||||

X-OR |

** ****Theory:**

A binary variable can take the value of 0 or 1. A Boolean function is an expression formed with binary variables, the two binary operators OR and AND, and unary operator NOT, parentheses, and an equal sign. For a given value of the variables, the function can be either 0 or 1. Boolean function represented as an algebraic expression may be transformed from an algebraic expression into a logic diagram composed of AND, OR, and NOT gates. . Every Boolean function can be realized by a And-Or-Not gates i.e. using AOI logic

F=xy+x’y’+y’z

**Procedure:**

- Connect the trainer kit to ac power supply.
- Verify the gates and make connections as per circuit diagram-A.
- Apply various input combinations and observe output for each one.
- Verify the truth table for each input/ output combination.
- Repeat the process for circuit diagram-B.
- Switch off the ac power supply.

**Observations:**** **

INPUT | OUTPUT | ||

X | Y | Z | F |

**Conclusion: **Should follow result in conformation with theory.